A participle, the -ing or -ed form of the verb that is being used as an adjective, that comes right after the word it modifies is punctuated based on "essential/nonessential." If the participle is needed to define the word it modifies, there are no commas. ...owned the car involved in the accident... ...know the man sitting near my son... If a participle adds extra information, it is separated by a comma. ...owned the 2012 VW Beetle, involved in the accident... ...know Don Jones, sitting near my son... When the participle is down the line in the sentence, it usually takes a comma in front of it. ...submitting this exhibit that was referred to in your deposition, Bates-stamped 15... ...approached the front door of the house, closed and locked... Happy punctuating! Margie